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Paul
May 6, 2021

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## Chapter 1 : 3-Dimensional Space

In this chapter we will start taking a more detailed look at three dimensional space (3-D space or $${\mathbb{R}^3}$$). This is a very important topic for Calculus III since a good portion of Calculus III is done in three (or higher) dimensional space.

We will be looking at the equations of graphs in 3-D space as well as vector valued functions and how we do calculus with them. We will also be taking a look at a couple of new coordinate systems for 3-D space.

This is the only chapter that exists in two places in the notes. When we originally wrote these notes all of these topics were covered in Calculus II however, we have since moved several of them into Calculus III. So, rather than split the chapter up we kept it in the Calculus II notes and also put a copy in the Calculus III notes. Many of the sections not covered in Calculus III will be used on occasion there anyway and so they serve as a quick reference for when we need them. In addition this allows those that teach the topic in either place to have the notes quickly available to them.

Here is a list of topics in this chapter.

The 3-D Coordinate System – In this section we will introduce the standard three dimensional coordinate system as well as some common notation and concepts needed to work in three dimensions.

Equations of Lines – In this section we will derive the vector form and parametric form for the equation of lines in three dimensional space. We will also give the symmetric equations of lines in three dimensional space. Note as well that while these forms can also be useful for lines in two dimensional space.

Equations of Planes – In this section we will derive the vector and scalar equation of a plane. We also show how to write the equation of a plane from three points that lie in the plane.

Quadric Surfaces – In this section we will be looking at some examples of quadric surfaces. Some examples of quadric surfaces are cones, cylinders, ellipsoids, and elliptic paraboloids.

Functions of Several Variables – In this section we will give a quick review of some important topics about functions of several variables. In particular we will discuss finding the domain of a function of several variables as well as level curves, level surfaces and traces.

Vector Functions – In this section we introduce the concept of vector functions concentrating primarily on curves in three dimensional space. We will however, touch briefly on surfaces as well. We will illustrate how to find the domain of a vector function and how to graph a vector function. We will also show a simple relationship between vector functions and parametric equations that will be very useful at times.

Calculus with Vector Functions – In this section here we discuss how to do basic calculus, i.e. limits, derivatives and integrals, with vector functions.

Tangent, Normal and Binormal Vectors – In this section we will define the tangent, normal and binormal vectors.

Arc Length with Vector Functions – In this section we will extend the arc length formula we used early in the material to include finding the arc length of a vector function. As we will see the new formula really is just an almost natural extension of one we’ve already seen.

Curvature – In this section we give two formulas for computing the curvature (i.e. how fast the function is changing at a given point) of a vector function.

Velocity and Acceleration – In this section we will revisit a standard application of derivatives, the velocity and acceleration of an object whose position function is given by a vector function. For the acceleration we give formulas for both the normal acceleration and the tangential acceleration.

Cylindrical Coordinates – In this section we will define the cylindrical coordinate system, an alternate coordinate system for the three dimensional coordinate system. As we will see cylindrical coordinates are really nothing more than a very natural extension of polar coordinates into a three dimensional setting.

Spherical Coordinates – In this section we will define the spherical coordinate system, yet another alternate coordinate system for the three dimensional coordinate system. This coordinates system is very useful for dealing with spherical objects. We will derive formulas to convert between cylindrical coordinates and spherical coordinates as well as between Cartesian and spherical coordinates (the more useful of the two).