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Appendix A : Extras

In this chapter is material that didn’t fit into other sections for a variety of reasons. Also, in order to not obscure the mechanics of actually working problems, most of the proofs of various facts and formulas are in this chapter as opposed to being in the section with the fact/formula.

This chapter contains those topics.

Proof of Various Limit Properties – In this section we prove several of the limit properties and facts that were given in various sections of the Limits chapter.

Proof of Various Derivative Facts/Formulas/Properties – In this section we prove several of the rules/formulas/properties of derivatives that we saw in Derivatives Chapter.

Proof of Trig Limits – In this section we give proofs for the two limits that are needed to find the derivative of the sine and cosine functions using the definition of the derivative.

Proofs of Derivative Applications Facts/Formulas – In this section we prove many of the facts that we saw in the Applications of Derivatives chapter.

Proof of Various Integral Facts/Formulas/Properties – In this section we prove some of the facts and formulas from the Integral Chapter as well as a couple from the Applications of Integrals chapter.

Area and Volume Formulas – In this section we derive the formulas for finding area between two curves and finding the volume of a solid of revolution.

Types of Infinity – In this section we have a discussion on the types of infinity and how these affect certain limits. Note that there is a lot of theory going on 'behind the scenes' so to speak that we are not going to cover in this section. This section is intended only to give you a feel for what is going on here. To get a fuller understanding of some of the ideas in this section you will need to take some upper level mathematics courses.

Summation Notation – In this section we give a quick review of summation notation. Summation notation is heavily used when defining the definite integral and when we first talk about determining the area between a curve and the \(x\)-axis.

Constant of Integration – In this section we have a discussion on a couple of subtleties involving constants of integration that many students don’t think about when doing indefinite integrals. Not understanding these subtleties can lead to confusion on occasion when students get different answers to the same integral. We include two examples of this kind of situation.